The percentage of the income which is paid to the government for funding of infrastructure development,for paying salaries of the employees which get employed by state or central government,etc is called Income tax.Income tax act,1961 administers the provision of levying,collecting and recovering income tax in India.
CBDT is responsible for regulation of Direct Tax laws via IT department and it comes under the revenue department of Ministry of Finance.Income tax department also takes care of detection of avoidance of tax.
Introduction About Income Tax:
Income tax is the percentage of the earned(salaries, wages, revenue) and unearned(dividends, rents, interests) income, except the agricultural income, levied by the central government consecutively to fund the infrastructural development of the country, pay the salaries of the state or central government employees, and providing goods to the citizens. All taxes are imposed with adherence to the Income Tax Act, 1961 which comes under the laws of income tax. The Income Tax Law includes Income Tax Rules 1962, Income Tax Act 1961, Notifications and the Circulars furnished by Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT), judicial pronouncements by the SC and High Courts and the Annual Finance Acts.
Income tax falls under the ambit of direct taxation such as capital gains tax, securities transaction tax; however, there are various indirect taxes as well that we pay such as sales tax, VAT, Octroi, service tax, and a few others.
The income tax paid by the individuals and businesses is the significant source of the revenue for the central government or Government of India. The revenue functions are regulated by the Ministry of Finance, who has delegated the responsibility of managing the direct taxes (like income tax, wealth tax) to the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).
How Does Income Tax Works?
Income tax is applicable for the individuals, businesses, corporations, and any other establishments that generate income. The Income Tax Act, 1961 administers the collection, recovery, and regulation of income tax in India. The government requires the tax revenue to fulfill various objectives. Income tax assists the government in spawning a steady source of income which is used for the development of the country.
Though the income tax is paid on a monthly basis from the regular earnings, it is calculated on an annual basis. The amount of the income tax that an individual is required to pay depends on several factors.
Elaboration on Income Tax:
Every individual should mandatorily pay the Income-tax, Hindu Undivided Family (HUF), Association of Persons (AOP), the Body of Individuals (BOI), corporate firms, and all other establishments that produce income.
The taxes are determined from the annual income of a person in a yearly cycle as per the Income Tax law, which starts from the 1st of April to 31st of March of the next calendar year. The law recognizes and classifies the year of annual tax cycle as the “Previous Year” and “Assessment Year.”
The year in which the income is generated is known as the previous year and the year in which the income tax is levied is called the assessment year.
For example, Income earned between April 1st, 2018 and 31st March 2019 would be called as the previous year's income, and it will be levied an income tax in the assessment year or the next year that begins on 1st April 2019.
The government does tax collection in three significant ways:
Under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance, the Income Tax Department (IT Department) is responsible for supervising the collection of Income Tax, Expenditure Tax, and various other financial acts that are declared in the Union Budget with each passing year. The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) monitors the policy and planning of taxes and the direct tax laws through the IT Department. Along with the collection of taxes, the IT department is also comprehending in the prevention and detection of tax avoidance.
In Union Budget 2018,five major changes have been introduced in Income Tax :
Increase in the cess of personal and corporation income tax from 3% to 4% which will increase collection of Income Tax.
Deduction of Rs 40,000 on the income of salaried individuals taking the place of present exemption in the form of medical cost reimbursements and other allowances.
All the profits from mutual funds and stocks which are above Rs. 1 lakh will be charged at the rate of 10%.The long term capital gains which were invested in mutual funds and stocks till 31st January,2018 were exempted from deduction of tax.
There had been lots of changes which has been introduced for senior citizens such as the exemptions has been increased from Rs 10,000 to 50,000 on prepayments which were made in banks.Deduction limit of premium to be paid for medical expenditures or health insurances had been increased from Rs 30,000 to 50,000.No TDS deduction under the 194A section and provision of benefits of interest which has been received from recurring and fixed deposits.
The Interim Budget 2019 introduced these changes in the Income Tax norms:
People earning up to Rs. 5 lakhs per annum will get full tax rebate after all deductions. A large number of young working professionals fall in this income segment.
The TDS threshold on interests of bank and post office deposits have been increased from Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 40,000.
The TDS threshold on rental income has been raised to Rs. 2.4 lakhs in 2019 from Rs. 1.8 lakhs in 2018.
The standard tax deduction has also been increased from Rs 40,000 to Rs. 50,000.
No substantial tax cuts have been announced for the large corporates. These companies might now have fewer incentives to create new jobs.
The annual cycle of tax starts from 1st of April and ends on 31st March of the next year.The previous year is the one in which income has been earned and assessment year is the one on which the tax is charged.
There are three ways by which tax is collected by the government:
Tax which is deducted from monthly salary (TDS).
Advance tax and self assessment tax
For individuals and Hindu Undivided Families( both men and women ) who are less than 60 yrs old:
|Income Slab||Tax Rate|
|Up to Rs 2,50,000||Nil|
|50 lakh - 1 crore or > 1 crore||15%|
|Cess||3% of total income tax + surcharge|
For individuals and Hindu Undivided Families( both men and women ) who are more than 80 yrs old:
|Income Slab||Tax Rate|
|Up to 3,00,000||Nil|
|For people > 80 years old, Income up to 5 lakh||Nil|
|Surcharge and Cess will be same as above|
The income tax can be saved by making several investments under section 80C and 80D.The section 80C allows the individual to save up to Rs 1,50,000 through investments and 80D deals with deductions of tax on medical insurance of around Rs 25,000.Tax refund could be claimed through Form 16.HRA components such as investments, PF,insurance are need to be mentioned in Form 16 for declaring investments.
There are three ways to check the status:
To check the income tax refund status,an individual should visit the official website www.incometaxefiling.gov.in
Send the email to the IT department mentioning all the details of refund in it.
Call on toll free number to check the status(1800-4250-0025).
Following are the forms that needs to be filled based on the income group.For filing ITR, bank account statements,form 16 and previous year’s return copy will be required.
|ITR-1||The individuals who have income from one house property,salary and other sources like interest|
|ITR-2||Individuals and HUF who doesn’t have income from business and profession.|
|ITR-2A||No income from business or profession,capital gains and foreign assets|
|ITR 3||Partners in firms but not carrying business under proprietorship|
|ITR 4||Individuals having income from proprietary business|
|ITR 4S||Income tax return from Presumptive business|
|ITR 5||For person other than individual,HUF,company and person filing ITR-7|
|ITR 6||Companies claiming return under section 11|
|ITR 7||Companies which file return under section 139(4A),139(4B),139(4C),139(4D),139(4F)|
|ITR V||Acknowledgement form of filing income tax return|
There are few sources to save income tax:
Insurance: Health and life insurance options
House loans: Tax deductions up to Rs 1,50,000 can be claimed.
PF or Provident Fund: By investing in PF account, a reasonable amount of tax can be saved.
NSC or National Saving Certificate: In this a lower amount of Rs 100 can be saved even for a period of five years at least.
Fixed Deposits: With a lock in period of five years a considerable amount of tax can be saved while earning interest.
Forms of Income Tax:
Some of the essential Income tax forms are:
Form No. 3CA: This form is used to generate the audit report if the professional accounts of a person are audited under the Section 44AB of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Form No. 3CB: This form is used for a person who is falling under clause (b) of sub-rule (1) of rule 6G to generate the audit report under Section-44AB of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Form No. 3CD: It is used to state particulars as per the section-44AB of the Income-tax Act, 1961.
Form No. 3CEB: It is used to issue the report through an accountant under Section 92E in international transactions.
Form No. 10A: This form is required if a charitable trust/institution has to be registered under Section-12A(1)(a) of the Income Tax Act, 1961, for which the application has to be made through Form No.10A.
Form No.10B: It is required to generate the audit report of the charitable and religious trust/institution under the Section-12A(b) of the Income Tax Act.
Form No. 15CA: It is used to collect the information regarding payments made to a foreign company or a non-resident person.
Form No. 15CB: It is required to get the certificate issued through an accountant.
Form No. 15G: An individual who is not a firm or a company can register claims of specific receipts without the tax deductions via Form No. 15G. Such declarations should be made under sub-sections (1) and (1A) of Section 197A of the Income Tax Act, 1961.
Form No. 15H: If a 60 years old person has to file claims for a few receipts without the tax deductions, the declaration under sub-section (1C) of Section-197A of the Income Tax Act is required to be made through Form No. 15H.
Form No. 16: This form is used to certify the TDS (tax deducted at source) which is subtracted from the income reflects under the ‘Salaries’ head.
Form No.16A: The TDS under Section-203 of the Income Tax Act, 1961 is furnished through this form.
Form No.26AS: The annual tax statement is issued under section-203AA through this form.
Form No. 35: The Commissioner of Income Tax (Appeals) is notified through this form.
Form No. 36: It is used to inform the Appellate Tribunal.
Form No. 49A and 49AA: It is used to apply for the allotment of a Permanent Account Number (PAN). However, this form can be filed only by the Citizens of India, entities which have been established in India, Indian Companies, and the unincorporated entities that have been built in India.
Form No. 49B: It is used to apply for the Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN) allocation under Section-203A of the Income Tax Act.
Form No. 60: If a person performs a transaction, stipulated under Rule 114B and doesn't have a Permanent Account Number (PAN), then this form is required.
Types of Income or Taxable Heads of Income:
There can be various sources of income, and each kind of income is taxed accordingly. These sources are called as the heads of income.
Articles that can help in filing income tax:
Income tax can be a tedious job for many people, and it is a fact that there are various details and nitty-gritty involved in the calculation and payment of income tax. However, if you want to get more clarity about filing taxes and the related subjects, read the pages given below.